Pengayaan reading jenis-jenis teks
|No.||Jenis Teks||Contoh Teks|
|1.||Procedure||How to make Lemonade Ingredients: |
For each glass use:
- 2 tablespoons of lemon juice.
- 2 tablespoons of sugar.
- 1 glass of water.
1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup.
2. Take out the seeds.
3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass.
4. Add sugar.
5. Add water and stir well.
6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right.
7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade.
A CONE-SHAPED BASKET
- Heavy paper
- Ribbon or string
- A plate
- A pencil
1. Use a half circle of paper to make the cone basket.
2. Draw a whole circle on paper using a plate as the pattern to make a half circle.
3. Cut out the circle and fold it in half.
4. Cut the two halves apart along the fold.
5. Twist the half circle into a cone shape and it in place.
6. Use a ribbon or a string for the handle. Paste the ends of the ribbon in place.
7. Decorate your cone basket.
How to make Popcorn crunch
- 1,5 cups of sugar wheat cereal
- 1 cup of golden syrup flaked almond
- 0,5 cup of butter
- 8 cup of popcorn already pop
- 2 cups of puffed
- 1 cup of toasted
- 1 teaspoon of vanilla
- 0,75 teaspoon of cinnamon
Time: 10 minutes
How to make it:
Place sugar and golden syrup in a heatproof dish, stir and cook until sugar is dissolved (approximately four minutes on high).
Add butter and cook for six minutes.
While this is cooking, place popcorn, puff wheat cereal, and almonds into a separate bowl.
Add cinnamon and vanilla to golden syrup mixture, combine syrup with popcorn, cereal and almonds and spread over a lighty greased 25 cetimeters x 30 centimeters baking tray.
Allow to cool and then cut into pieces.
Store in an airtight container.
HOW TO MAKE PEANUT CRUNCH
What you’ll need :
v 1 cup of peanuts
v 3 cups of brown sugar
v 2 tablespoons of vinegar
v 1 cup of water
What to do :
Place the sugar, water and vinegar into a large saucepan.
Stir slowly over a low heat until the sugar is disolved
Add peanuts , increase the heat and allow to boil
Remove from the heat when the nuts have craked and the mixture appears golden brown
Allow bubbles to settle
Spoon into small paper patty cases or pour the mixture into a flat greased pan and mark into bite-size pieces.
|2.||Recount||CLASS PICNIC Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic |
First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two o’clock we left for school.
We had a great day.
|3.||Descriptive||‘ISSIS’ Cafe. ‘ISSIS’ is Javanese word meaning ‘cool’. So, besides the food, ISSIS Café offers a spacious, fully air-conditioned, cozy place. |
Located at Jl. Cilacap No. 8, Jakarta Pusat, ISSIS Café is famous for its European food, especially steak, barbecue ribs, salad, and soup. You might find this kind of food anywhere else, but there is no other place that offers great meals at better prices than ISSIS Café.
You can enjoy a delicious imported sirloin steak for only Rp. 25,000 and ice cappuccino for only Rp. 5,500. There is also a salad bar with eight different vegetables. You can make your own salad which you can eat as much as you like, for only Rp. 12,000. The customers are mostly college students, office workers, and families.
|4.||News Item||Undersea earthquake strikes off Maluku JAKARTA (AP): A strong earthquake struck in eastern Indonesian waters on Tuesday, a meteorological agency said. A local official said there was no threat of a destructive tsunami, and no damage or causalities were immediately reported. |
The quake, which had a preliminary magnitude of 6.1, was centered beneath the Banda Sea around 188 kilometers (117 miles) southwest of Ambon, the capital of Maluku province, the U.S. Geological Survey said on its Web site.
The tremor was not felt by residents in the region and there were no reports of damage or casualties, said Aprilianto, an official at a Jakarta-based local Meteorological and Geophysics Agency.
|5.||Report||Australia Australia is a large continent. It has six states and two territories. |
The capital city of Australia is Canberra. It is in the Australian Capital Territory.
The population of Australia is about 20 million. The first inhabitants to live in Australia were Aboriginal people. After that people came from all over the world. The main language is English, however many other languages are spoken.
There are many plants and animals that are only found in Australia, e.g. kangaroos, platypuses, gum trees and Waratahs.
The main products and industries are wool, minerals, oil, coal, cereals and meat.
Some famous landmarks are the Harbour Bridge, the Opera House and Uluru (Ayers Rock).
Drugs are chemical substances. There are three different types of drugs: stimulants, depressants and hallucinogens.
Stimulants speed up the central nervous system. They increase heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Examples are caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, ecstasy and cocaine.
Depressants slow down the central nervous system. They decrease heart and breathing rates. Alcohol, heroin and analgesics are common examples of these types of drugs.
Hallucinogens change mood, thought and senses. LSD is the most well-known example of this type of drug.
3. A traditional market
A traditional market is the type of market where people can bargain the prices. The items sold in traditional market are basically the same. They are fruits, vegetables, meat and fish, spices, dry good and household items. At the glances, the market may seem to be disorganized mess.
Surrounding the market there are many small scale traders, usually selling fruits. This traders can not afford the cost of renting a stall inside the market.
On the first floor of the market, there are permanent kiosks and stall selling textile, stationery, clothing, electronic goods, household appliances, gold shops, etc.
On the second floor, people can buy meat and fish, fruits, vegetables, and dry goods. The sellers sell fruits and vegetables through the middle area. Meanwhile they sell dry goods in the edge area of the second floor
|6.||Hortatory Exposition||Good morning, ladies and gentlemen Thank you very much for the House of Representatives which had invited me to give the speech concerning about the mystery sinetrons shown in many television presently. My name is Budi Santoso, a lecturer at University of Indonesia majoring in mass communication. Here, I represent the academics point of view about the subject we discuss this morning. |
As we know, there are many mystery sinetrons shown on Television stations presently. The sinetrons depict horrible scenes about the spirit world. It is described that spirits often disturb people by frightening them in the darkness, when they walk alone at night or at the cemetery. The spirits are pictured as frightening appearance such as white clothes flying corpse, shattered face copse etc. the show must be abandoned for several reasons.
Firstly, it make a wrong perception of people especially children and women to do activity at nights, for example going to the wells, even cooking at kitchen alone. How do you fell if you always live in anxiety.
Thirdly, such kind of sinetrons waste out time to think unreal phenomena while we are facing many kinds of living problems.
In brief, for the reason, I think television station must stop showing mystery sinetrons. They are bad influences for people, frightening our children and destroying their belief to god.
Thank you very much for your attention.
|7.||Analytical Exposition||SHOULD CHILDREN WEAR HATS AT SCHOOL? |
(Statement of position): I believe that you should always wear a hat at school when you are playing outside , to stop you from getting sunburn.
Firstly, if you don’t wear a hat, you will get sunburn ant the sunburn is painful.
Secondly, sunburn could lead to skin cancer. Sunburn can lead to health problems later in life. Many older people suffer from skin cancer which can kill them.
(Reinforcement of position statement):
In my opinion all school students should wear hats.
|8.||Spoof||One day, two villagers went to Jakarta. They went to the biggest mall and saw shiny silver walls that could open and move apart and back together. They were amazed when an old lady rolled in to the small room and the doors closed. A minute later, the doors opened and a young beautiful lady stepped out. The father said to his son “Go, get your mother now.” |
The ending of the story is funny because they thought that the doors can change an old lady into a young beautiful lady. Whereas the doors were actually elevator doors.
|9.||Explanation||How to Fly a Hot Air Balloon A hot air balloon consists of a basket, four big gas tanks, a burner and the balloon or ‘envelope’ |
First, four nylon poles are put into sockets on top of the basket. The burner is then put on top of the poles. Next, the cables are connected to the burner frame. The cables also go under the basket in order to hold everything together.
After this, the hoses from the full gas tanks must be connected to the burner so that pilot can test it.
Next, the mouth of the balloon is held open by two people while it is filled with cold air from the fan until it is quite fat and tight.
Now for the difficult bit. The pilot lies on the ground, half in the basket, turns on the gas burner, and points the flame into the ‘mouth’ of the balloon. This is so that the balloon slowly stands up.
When the it is ready to go, a bit more air is heated up the in the balloon. This results in the air in the balloon to be hot enough to get the balloon to rise off the ground
|10.||Discussion||Euthanasia Euthanasia is the act of intentionally causing the painless death of a sick person. In terms of a physician’s actions, it can be passive in that a physician plays no direct role in the death of the person or it can be active in that the physician does something directly to cause the death. Now the question: Do you think it is right for a physician to refuse to participate in active euthanasia? |
It is NEVER right for a physician or any one else to deliberately hasten a person’s death. This includes all forms of euthanasia-active and passive. To deliberately withhold food/fluids is to subject the person to a painful death-it is NOT a humane death. We are not in a position to determine the worth of a life. Every person has a soul-it is up to God to determine when he will take that soul from the shell that is the human body. We all have a duty to support life with ordinary means-food/fluids but we are not required to use extrordinary means-aggressive life support,dialysis,etc indefinitely.
O.K. now, euthanasia (I think) is a type of suicide, whether or not you are sick. Physicians absolutley have the choice of NOT participating, in fact it should not be legal!!! Now if you put someone to death who was sick, or heck they dont even have to be sick, but you would look at your self everyday and be reminded of it. i bet you would feel like a murderer. If people want to die they can commit suicide in their own homes, makin someone else do it is not going to make it any better morally. Euthanasia is a sad, sad deal, please try to stop it.
I believe if the person wants to die to end their life they should have the right to choose.I do not believe that the person should beable to have themselves killed if they’re not really suffering. Yes the person does have the right to kill him or herself. BUt the authourity stands in the way of that. If this is such a free country why can’t anyone participate in EUTHANASIA?
If we have the right (at least in the U.S) to do whatever we want to with our lives, whether it be rich and famous or an alcoholic crack head, why is it that we can not decide when our life should end? It is ours, if we can kill the life that grows inside us, we should be allowed to also destroy the life that harbors others. Especially if that person is in pain and requests that some end their suffering. I don’t think you can allow one law with out the either. A life is a life, right?
|11.||Review||Get Married Illustrating the current situation happening in Indonesia, Get Married presents the figures of unemployment. A few big-name celebrities show up in cameo roles. The movie tells about a true friendship of four youngsters Mae (Nirina Zubir), Guntoro (Desta ‘Club Eighties’), Eman (Aming), dan Beni (Ringgo Agus Rahman) who judge themselves as the most frustrated people in Indonesia. Soon, they turn out to be street kids and spend most of their times at street, bullying people who pass by. |
Suddenly, it comes to a moment when Mae is persuaded to grant her parents’ wish to have a grandchild. Mae’s parents, (Meriam Bellina dan Jaja Mihardja) firmly state that Mae must get married in a little while. Soon, they are busy finding candidates who would marry their only daughter. However, along the process of finding the right one for Mae, the three male friends of Mae turn out to be brutal evaluators for the candidates. In the mean time, Mae falls badly in love with Rendy (Richard Kevin), a rich, handsome and kind-hearted man. Unfortunately Rendy, Mae, Guntoro, Eman, Beni are brought into a misunderstanding, and soon fights break out between the two groups of Mae and Rendy.
Written based on some of youngsters’ real-life brotherhood experiences—this story will stir you to your emotional core while bringing out your sense of brotherhood. There are a lot of little things and big things that make this movie worth watching. The story is good, the banter is great, the relationships between the characters are great, and it’s a fun time at the movies. While some of the jokes are amusing, some of the fights go on a few bit too long.
Adapted from: http://maliablog.wordpress.com
|12.||Narratives||Snow Maiden |
Once upon a time there lived a couple in a village. They had got married for a long time, but so far they did not have a baby yet. Every single minute they prayed to God, begged for a baby, but it never came true.
One day, they went to snow mountain. They made a girl from snow and they dressed her beautifully. When it got dark, they decided to go home and left the snow girl alone. The following morning, someone knocked the door. \”Any body home?\”, she said. The old woman inside opened the door and asked, \”Who are you?\” The girl said \”I\’m Snow Maiden, your daughter\”. The old woman was surprised and happy. \”Oh really? Thanks God! Come in, please!\”
Since that meeting, they lived happily. Snow Maiden was beautiful, kind, diligent and helpful. Her parents and all of her friends loved her very much One day, Snow Maiden played with her friends. They played fire. At first, Snow Maiden just looked at their play. Suddenly, her friends asked her to jump on the fire. Of course she refused it because one thing that made her afraid was the fire. It\’s because Snow Maiden was made of snow, so she should avoid the fire. But her friends kept on forcing her to jump on. Finally, she could not do anything then she did it. She jumped on the fire and she melted. Her friends was so sorry about this, they cried and cried hoping Snow Maiden could live again, but it was useless. Snow Maiden would not be back anymore.
Her mother tried to entertain Snow Maiden\’s friends and asked them to make a new Snow Maiden. They went to a snow mountain and started making it. They expected to have the new Snow Maiden. Days passed but their dreams never came true. Malin Kundang
Once upon time, there was a boy named Malin Kundang. He lived with his mother in a very poor condition. They looked fire wood in the forest nearly to make a living. Malin Kundang was so unsatisfied with their bad luck. That’s why he decided to go to another city to look for a better life.
Not long afterwards, Malin asked his mother’s permission to go to a big city. He promised to come back soon with much money. His mother permitted him and always prayed for him. In his journey, Malin Kundang joined a merchant in a big ship.
Actually, Malin was a diligent boy. He worked hard to get much money and everything changed. He became a rich merchant. His business partner asked him to marry his daughter. Malin agreed. Then Malin and his business partner’s daughter got married. They had honeymoon and traveled all over the world.
Many years later, Malin’s ship anchored in his village. Many villagers welcome his arrival and admired his glorious ship. Furthermore, they wanted to see his success. Malin’s mother heard that her son had come back. She was very glad and eager to see him. With a happy smile in her lips, she went to the seashore to meet her son. Do you know what happened when she met Malin? He pretended that he didn’t know her. Of course she was very very sad and disappointed.
In her desperation she cried to God to punish Malin. She cursed Malin Kundang and his ship to be a stone. Since then, people can see the big stone in the beach.
5. Functional Skills
- Offering Help or Things (menawarkan bantuan / menawarkan sesuatu)
|- May I help you? - Can I help you? |
- Could I help you?
- How can I be of assistance to you?
- How can I be of help to you?
- What can I help you
|- What can I do for you? - How can I assist you? |
- How can I help you?
- Let me help you?
- Do you want me to help you?
- Shall I …?
- Would you like some bread? Yes, please.
- Would you care for some coffee? No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee.
- Why don’t you have some biscuit, please? Thanks, I’d love to.
Jawaban untuk menerima tawaran antara lain: Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Untuk menolak tawaran digunakan ungkapan seperti: No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
- 2. Introducing (memperkenalkan)
|Memperkenalkan Dri||Memperkenalkan Orang Lain|
|- I’d like to introduce myself. - My I introduce myself? |
- Let me introduce myself!
- I want to introduce myself
|- I’d like you to meet … (nama) - This is my friend/boss/etc…(nama) |
- Have you met…(nama)?
- May I introduce you to …(nama/jabatan)
- Let me introduce you to ….
- I want to introduce you to ….
- Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)
|- let’s + V1 - Why don’t we …? |
- How about…?
- I’d like to invite you to…
- Would you like to…?
- I wonder if you’d like to
|- I’m sorry I can’t - I’d like to but… |
- I’m afraid I can’t
- No, let’s not.
|- I’d love to - I’d like very much |
- I’d be happy/glad to
- Yes, I’d be delighted to.
- That’s good ide
- Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)
|Thank you Thank you very much |
Thank you very much for… (kata benda)
I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun)
|You are welcome. That’s all right |
Not at all
Don’t mention it
Thet’s all right
- Congratulations (ucapan selamat)
|Congratulations Congratulations on … |
I’d like to congratulate you.
I’d like to congratulate you on…
It was great to hear…
It was to hear about….
Happy birthday to you.
Happy new year.
Have a nice holiday
|Thank you Thank you and the same to you |
Thank you. I need it.
Thank you very much.
- Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)
- I’m sorry to hear that
- Oh, that’s too bad.
- How awful!
- How terrible!
- Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)
|It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied |
It’s really a great pleasure
|I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… |
I feel dosappointed
She is extremely displeased
- Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)
- Well done!
- Great! Good work
- I am satisfied with your work
- You did well
- Your job is satisfactory
- I am so happy about this
- I’m glad to what you’ve done
- It’s really satisfying
- I’m not satisfied with work
- You haven’t done well enough
- I am really dissappointed
- Sorry, but your work is not satisfactory
- Oh, no!
- It’s not very nice
- It’s really not good enough
- Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat)
|Asking Opinion||Giving opinion|
|How was the trip? How do you like your new house? |
How do you think of Rina’s idea?
How do you feel about this dicition?
What is your opinions of the movie?
What are your feelings about it?
|I think (that)…. In my opinion…. |
As I see, …
If you ask me, I feel…
Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain, kita bisa mengatakan:
- So do I
- Yes, I agree with you
- It is certainly
- That’s what I want to say
- I am with you
- I am on your side
- Well, I don’t think so
- I don’t think that is true
- I disagree with …
- I wouldn’t say that
- Exactly not
- I can’t say so
- On contrary
- I don’t buy that idea
|I am afraid I am feared |
I am scared
I am terrified
The sound is horrifying
|Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of |
It is nothing
|I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… |
I wondered if…
That made me worried
I have been thinking about ….
I am afraid if…
|Take is easy Calm down |
I know you are worried but…
It is not a big deal
|Ouch! That was hurt |
It is painful
It hurts me
I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache
I feel sore all over
My eyes hurt
|I’m very relieved to hear… Finally, it was over |
I feel relieved
I feel much better
I’m glad it’s over
That’s a great relief
I’m extremely glad to hear…
Thank goodness for that
What a relief!
|I love it I like it |
I am keen on it
I am crazy about it
We all enjoy
(benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea
|I don’t really like it I dislike it |
I am not really interested in…
I can’t enjoy…
(benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea
I can’t stand
I hate it
|I am embarrassed I feel ashamed |
Oh my God
Shame on me
I don’t feel comfortable
I feel awkward
|I am annoyed I had enough with it |
I can’t bear it any longer
You made me annoyed
You are such a pain in the neck
You made me sick
|Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to |
Would you mind …?
Any chance of…
|I should be delighted to come By all means |
I have no objection
I’d be happy to
|I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible |
I’m afraid not
No, I won’t
You must be joking
|I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service |
I take great exception to…
I want to complain about…
This is crazy!
|You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! |
It’s your mistake!
|Much to my regret Sadly, I …. |
I’m terribly sorry
I honestly regret that I …
Sorry, I …
|Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did |
I am extremely sorry
I really must apologies
May I offer you my sincerest apologies?
|Menyatakan Kemungkinan||Menanyakan Kemungkinan|
|I think there is possibility to … I sassume/believe… |
In all probability,…
it is going to be possible for me to…
that will probably …
it’s quite possible …
|Do you think he/it could…? Would you say we’re capable of…?|
Are you capable of…?
Are you able to…?
Do you have any experience of…?
Do you know how to…?
Do you think you can…?